South Centre February 28, A fundamental challenge posed by globalization is that global markets are inherently disequalizing, making rising inequality in developing countries more rather than less likely. Following are extracts from the lecture delivered in Helsinki, Finland. A Brief History of the Twenty first Century.
Sociological methods[ edit ] Pat was confused. Choosing a college to attend was an important decision with life-long implications, but it was difficult to know which school was the right one to attend.
Pat had applied to and been accepted by several schools, but now was the time to make a commitment. Pat sought out information from various sources to help make the choice, but received different answers.
It was inexpensive and Pat could save money by living at home. In spite of these conflicts, Pat continued to think about the recommendations mentioned in an article written by a social scientist, who had carefully examined the life trajectories of large numbers of people who had graduated from various colleges across the U.
Those recommendations were again completely different than those made by friends and family. With all this different information, how could Pat make the right choice? Introduction[ edit ] The goal of this chapter is to introduce the methods employed by sociologists in their study of social life.
This is not a chapter on statistics nor does it detail specific methods in sociological investigation. The primary aim is to illustrate how sociologists go beyond common sense understandings in trying to explain or understand social phenomena.
They do not see the world as we normally do, they question and analyze why things happen and if there is a way to stop a problem before it happens.
At issue in this chapter are the methods used by sociologists to claim to speak authoritatively about social life. There are dozens of different ways that human beings claim to acquire knowledge.
A few common examples are: Choosing to trust another source for information is the act of making that source an authority in your life.
Parents, friends, the media, religious leaders, your professor, books, or web pages are all examples of secondary sources of information that some people trust for information.
People often claim to have learned something through an experience, such as a car accident or using some type of drug. Some physical skills, such as waterskiing or playing basketball, are acquired primarily through experience. On the other hand, some experiences are subjective and are not generalizable to all.
Simple deduction is often used to discern truth from falsity and is the primary way of knowing used in philosophy. I might suggest that if I fall in a swimming pool full of water, I will get wet.
If that premise is true and I fall in a swimming pool, you could deduce that I got wet. Many people who live in societies that have not experienced industrialization decide what to do in the future by repeating what was done in the past. Even in modern societies, many people get satisfaction out of celebrating holidays the same way year after year.
Fast-paced change in modern societies, however, makes traditional knowledge less and less helpful in making good choices. Some people claim to acquire knowledge believed to be valid by consulting religious texts and believing what is written in them, such as the Torah, the Bible, the Koran, the Bhagavad Gita, or the Book of Mormon.
Others claim to receive revelations from a higher power in the form of voices or a general intuitive sense of what one should do. The scientific method combines the use of logic with controlled experience, creating a novel way of discovery that marries sensory input with careful thinking.
By adopting a model of cause and effect, scientists produce knowledge that can explain certain phenomena and even predict various outcomes before they occur. These methods of claiming to know certain things are referred to as epistemologies.
An epistemology is simply a way of knowing. In Sociology, information gathered through science is privileged over all others. That is, information gleaned using other epistemologies will be rejected if it is not supported by evidence gathered using the scientific method. The Scientific Method[ edit ] A scientific method or process is considered fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon verifiable evidence.
In addition to employing the scientific method in their research, sociologists explore the social world with several different purposes in mind. Like the physical sciences i.
This approach to doing science is often termed positivism though perhaps more accurately should be called empiricism. The positivist approach to social science seeks to explain and predict social phenomena, often employing a quantitative approach where aspects of social life are assigned numerical codes and subjected to in-depth analyses to uncover trends often missed by a casual observer.
This approach most often makes use of deductive reasoningwhich initially forms a theory and hypothesis, which are then subjected to empirical testing. Unlike the physical sciences, sociology and other social sciences, like anthropology also often seek simply to understand social phenomena.With the end in January of the long-standing system of quotas on apparel, for example, poor countries such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Lesotho, which benefited from preferential arrangements, justifiably have been fearing competition from China and Vietnam.
The World Bank’s Poverty Reduction Support Credit is such a scheme supporting antiretroviral drug provision in Mozambique. (TNCs). (8) (c) With reference to examples, discuss the social, economic and environmental impacts of TNCs on their host countries.
(Environment Agency). There are currently inadequate arrangements for the.
This paper will focus on the TNC’s use of Emissions Credit Arrangements, as a vehicle to raise capital, the Committee’s concern with these arrangements, and alternative structures that TNC could use that would eliminate these concerns.
The book covers impacts as diverse as air pollution, biodiversity loss, deforestation, energy security, food security, greenhouse gas emissions, land use change, rural development, water consumption and other socioeconomic issues. Issue: Commercial ride-sharing companies, or transportation network companies (TNCs), have gained in popularity in dozens of U.S.
cities over the past few years as a new option in the public transportation market. TNCs use mobile technology to connect potential passengers with drivers who use their personal vehicles to provide transportation for a fee. TNCs organize & manage economic activities in different regions & develop trade inside & between units of the similar corporation in different regions.
It means they can often control the terms of trade and can diminish the effect of quota boundaries on the movement of products, go around trade tariffs.