The Middle Ages The period of European history extending from about to — ce is traditionally known as the Middle Ages.
The Domesday Book In a time dominated by the Church, troubadours became well-known secular entertainers moving beyond religious themes and exploring love and politics.
Troubadours rose to prominence in the High Middle Ages, which is generally considered to be ; however, a majority of the surviving works date to what is referred to as the classical period The origin of the word troubadour is somewhat debated, but it is apparent that it arose from the Occitan language as the tradition began in Occitania.
Occitania was never a country or single political entity, but is more of a cultural group united by the use of the Occitan language and geography. The region considered Occitania contained parts of present-day southern France, Monaco, and small pieces of Spain and Italy.
Occitan is a Romance language deriving from Latin so it maintains similar vocabulary and grammatical structures with French, Italian, and Spanish. Who are the Troubadours? In contrast with common perception, troubadours were not itinerant musicians, but instead generally remained with a wealthy patron for a period of time before traveling to a new court.
In the rigid social structure of the Middle Ages, troubadours occupied a rather ambiguous place in the hierarchy. Many of the early troubadours came from the nobility, either the high nobility or the class of knights, but throughout the era, troubadours from lower social classes also emerged.
Troubadours were employed to entertain at court, The tradition during the middle ages often enjoyed many of the pleasures and privileges enjoyed by the wealthiest members of society.
It is as a result of this patronage that many important examples of songs and poetry survive. Troubadours would create songbooks known as chansoniers for their patrons, and the preservation of these books in libraries of castles allows them to now grace some of the top international modern libraries.
In addition to performing for their patrons and the courts they entertained, troubadours also competed in regular competitions, though these did not become popular until the late-fourteenth and early-fifteenth centuries.
The first troubadour with surviving work is Guilhem de Peiteus who lived between The survival of work this early is astounding, but as a noble, his title was Duke William IX of Aquitaine, it is more likely he had the capabilities to copy and preserve his work.
While a vast majority of troubadours wrote and performed their own original material, some troubadours, such as Arnaut de Maruelh, employed others, musicians known as jongleurs, to perform their music.
Medieval society was intensely male-dominated, but there are notable examples of women rising to prominence in art, politics, and other fields, and secular music was not an exception.
Female troubadours were known as trobairitz as troubadour was a masculine word. The trobairitz were much less common than their male counterparts, but evidence of a few hundred remains. The work of the trobairitz was less prolific than of the troubadours, but surviving manuscripts demonstrate that the women were highly capable poets and musicians.
The Music and Poetry Most troubadours composed their own music and paired this with original lyrics, which demonstrated that the troubadours were very talented and capable individuals. Some troubadours, however, used existing music to accompany their lyrics, and it is uncertain how this practice was viewed by the audiences and patrons.
The most common musical instruments in the Middle Ages included woodwind and stringed instruments. While woodwinds, such as the recorder or pan flute, may have accompanied certain works, these sorts of instruments were less used.
Because troubadours performed and sang their music, stringed instruments were a practical accompaniment as they left the mouth unoccupied and available for singing. Lutes, gitterns, psalteries, and others were the primary instruments employed by troubadours.
A majority of musical compositions for troubadours were monophonic, meaning they were played or sung one note at a time without harmonies. Monophonic compositions are rather simple and relate to the chanting music used in churches in the Early Middle Ages.
The relatively simple structure of the music allowed the emphasis to be placed on the lyrics.
Troubadours wrote on a wide range of secular subjects though the common themes are chivalry and courtly love.
An extensive list of more specific genres evolved throughout the development of the troubadour tradition. A canso is a very typical genre that is a simple love song, generally admiring the beauty and virtue of a woman.
An alba refers to a morning song for lovers in advance of the necessary separation during the day. Canso de crozadas were political in content regarding the Crusades and generally in support of these ventures.
A tenso is a particularly interesting genre that is sung as a two-voiced debate, generally over political or ethical matters. The three types of compositions were known as trobar leu lighttrobar ric richand trobar clus closed.The Middle Ages. Progress in cartography during the early Middle Ages was slight.
The medieval mapmaker seems to have been dominated by the church, reflecting in his work the ecclesiastical dogmas and interpretations of Scripture. In fact, during the 6th century Constantine of Antioch created a “Christian topography” depicting the Earth as a flat disk.
The Middle Ages were a period of European history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the beginning of the Renaissance. Learn more about the . What it means to be literate is not an absolute standard even now.
This was even more true in the Middle Ages when the majority of the population couldn’t read at all, a certain percentage could read and not write, and the only way to be ‘literate’ at the time was if a person could read Latin.
Oct 01, · During late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, political, social, economic, and cultural structures were profoundly reorganized, as Roman imperial traditions gave way to those of the Germanic peoples who established kingdoms .
During the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church was the only church in Europe.
The laws of the land and leading roles in the government were all in the hands of the leading church leaders like bishops and archbishops. Culture and Society in Gwynedd during the High Middle Ages refers to a period in the History of Wales spanning the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (AD –).
The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle rutadeltambor.comd is located in the north of Wales.. Distinctive achievements in Gwynedd .