It remains relevant, sadly, to this day. Many nurses working in Australia find themselves in remote areas caring mainly for Aboriginal people of whom they have little understanding. It is hoped this paper will provide a basic awareness of indigenous Australians and the reasons for the ill health they experience today. Indigenous Australians have lived in Australia for over 50, years and their culture encompassed over tribes with individual languages and customs, with certain commonalities that could perhaps be compared to the common links between different European cultures.
Economic development by Europeans had as its necessary complement the ravaging of Aboriginal life. Indigenous peoples in australia essay if it is accepted that the pre Aboriginal population exceeded one million and that living standards were high, the subsequent history must all the less appear as one… Prehistory It is generally held that Australian Aboriginal peoples originally came from Asia via insular Southeast Asia now Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, East TimorIndonesia, and the Philippines and have been in Australia for at least 45,—50, years.
On the basis of research at the Nauwalabila Indigenous peoples in australia essay and Madjedbebe archaeological sites in the Northern Territoryhowever, some scientists have claimed that early humans arrived considerably sooner, perhaps as early as 65, to 80, years ago.
That conclusion is consistent with the argument made by some scholars that the migration of anatomically modern humans out of Africa and adjacent areas of Southwest Asia to South and Southeast Asia along the so-called Southern Route predated migration to Europe.
Other scholars question the earlier dating of human arrival in Australia, which is based on the use of optically stimulated luminescence measurement of the last time the sand in question was exposed to sunlightbecause the Northern Territory sites are in areas of termite activity, which can displace artifacts downward to older levels.
In either case, the first settlement would have occurred during an era of lowered sea levels, when there were more-coextensive land bridges between Asia and Australia.
Watercraft must have been used for some passages, however, such as those between Bali and Lombok and between Timor and Greater Australia, because they entail distances greater than miles km.
This is the earliest confirmed seafaring in the world.
By about 35, years ago all of the continent had been occupied, including the southwest and southeast corners Tasmania became an island when sea levels rose sometime between 13, and 8, years ago, thus isolating Aboriginal people who lived there from the mainland as well as the highlands of the island of New Guinea.
Archaeological evidence suggests that occupation of the interior of Australia by Aboriginal peoples during the harsh climatic regime of the last glacial maximum between 30, and 18, years ago was highly dynamicand all arid landscapes were permanently occupied only roughly 10, years ago.
The dingoa type of wild dog, appeared in Australia only 5, to 3, years ago, which postdates the time that Aboriginal people began hafting small stone implements into composite tools some 8, years ago.
Whereas the dingo was introduced from Southeast Asia, the small implements appear to be independent inventions from within Australia. Within the past 1,—3, years, other important changes occurred at the general continental level: There is evidence for complex social behaviours much earlier, however, including cremation before 40, years ago, personal ornamentation shell beads by 30, years ago, and long-distance trade in objects before 10, years ago.
It has not yet been ascertained whether there were single or multiple waves of migration into Australia, although recent genetic evidence indicates multiple donor groups, whether from a single heterogeneous migration or multiple waves. While there is no doubt that only anatomically modern humans Homo sapiens sapiens have ever occupied Australia, skulls found in the southeast suggest to some the existence of two distinct physical types.
However, most now accept that there was a wide range of variation in pre-European populations. It has also been argued that one group on the Murray River practiced a form of cosmetic cranial deformation that led to their different appearance. Some have posited that Aboriginal cultures have one of the longest deep-time chronologies of any groups on Earth.
Traditional sociocultural patterns By the time of European settlement inAboriginal peoples had occupied and utilized the entire continent and adapted successfully to a large range of ecological and climatic conditions, from wet temperate and tropical rainforests to extremely arid deserts.
Population densities ranged from roughly 1 to 8 square miles 2. Estimates of Aboriginal population vary fromto more than 1, More than different Aboriginal languages were spoken and hundreds of dialects; see also Australian Aboriginal languagesand most Aboriginal people were bilingual or multilingual.
Both languages or dialects and groups of people were associated with stretches of territory. Their members shared cultural features and interacted more with one another than with members of different groups.
These groups were not, however, political or economic entities, and, while language names may have been commonly used by groups as labels for one another, individual and group identity was grounded in much more locally oriented affiliations and memberships.
There was no consciousness of a shared national identity. However, the worldview of Aboriginal peoples tended to be expansive, with a perception of society as a community of common understandings and behaviours shared well beyond the confines of the local group.
The blurring of such boundaries accords with strong cultural emphases on diffusion and the expansion of networks of relationships through kinship, marriage alliance, exchange, and religious activities. Greater emphasis on maintaining boundaries, together with higher levels of ethnocentrism and intergroup conflict, were more likely but not invariably to be found in resource-rich areas with higher population densities.
According to traditional scholarship, Aboriginal people were hunter-gatherers who grew no crops and did not domesticate animals apart from the dingoso they were directly dependent on their natural environment. On the other hand, some historians and archaeologists in the 21st century argued that Aboriginal people employed agricultural practices that were far too sophisticated to be characterized as hunting and gathering.
Nevertheless, the conventional interpretation holds that the Aboriginal people, though nomadichad a very strong sense of attachment to sites and areas in their home territory, where most of their hunting and gathering was done.
The need to balance population with resources meant that most of the time people were dispersed into small food-gathering groups. But several times a year, when food resources permitted, large gatherings would be organized, and much of the social and religious business of the society would be transacted over a two- to three-week period of intense social activity.
This rhythm of aggregation and dispersal was fundamental, but over much of this dry continent ecological factors made dispersal the predominant fact of life. Australian Aborigines at an event commonly called a corroboree. This ceremony consists of much singing and dancing, activities by which they convey their history in stories and reenactments of the Dreaming, a mythological period of time that had a beginning but no foreseeable end, during which the natural environment was shaped and humanized by the actions of mythic beings.
It includes the creative era at the dawn of time, when mythic beings shaped the land and populated it with flora, fauna, and human beings and left behind the rules for social life. After their physical death and transformation into heavenly or earthly bodies, the indestructible creative beings withdrew from the earth into the spiritual realm.
As Aboriginal people understand it, the Dreaming beings retained control of all power and fertility, which they would release automatically into the human realm as long as humans followed their blueprint; this included the regular performance of rituals to ensure a continued flow of life-giving power.
Spirit beings were used as messengers to communicate with the living and to introduce new knowledge into human society.Indigenous to Down Under: The Aboriginal Australians Abstract This research paper explores the maltreatment by British colonizers of the Aboriginal Peoples of Australia.
In that this ethnic group has suffered continued persecution and stratification in the land they rightfully own. Essay The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples. For hundreds of years the rights of indigenous peoples have been violated. Whether it was denying them the rights to sacred lands, denying them the ability to practice their religious ceremonies, or simply denying their existence all together.
Indigenous Peoples of Australia is categorized into two groups namely, the Aboriginal People and the Torres Strait Islanders (Sharp). Aboriginal peoples are said to be the group of IP’s, who became the first settlers in mainland Australia. Racism against Indigenous Peoples in Australia Studentâ€™s Name Institution Racism against Indigenous People in Australia Australia is a country known for history of racism similar to many other countries in the world.
In this essay, I'll make the argument that in order to break the generational cycle of welfare dependency and disadvantage in the majority of indigenous communities, government policies need to be reshaped, addressing the educational requirements of children/5(3). The Struggle of Indigenous People in Australia - Australia has two different major Indigenous groups which are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, the First Peoples of Australia, and these two different groups have diverse culture, world views and origin with dissimilar experience of colonisation over the past years (Chino et al.