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These nutritionals Htst 386 final exam powders that can be reconstituted with water or other aqueous liquids, as well as concentrated and ready-to-drink nutritional liquids such as milk or protein based emulsions.
These nutritional liquids are especially useful when formulated with selected nutritional ingredients. Although breast milk is generally recognized as the best nutrition for newborn infants, not every mother can successfully breastfeed.
Breast milk replacers infant formulas may provide complete nutrition, and they have been proven to meet infant normal growth and developmental nutritional needs. Unfortunately, a small percentage of infant formula fed newborns can experience gastrointestinal GI intolerance problems, including loose stools, gas, necrotizing enterocolitis, colic, and the like.
The GI intolerance problem may be at least in part due to incomplete nutrient digestion and absorption in the infant. To address this tolerance problem, some infant formulas exclude lactose as an ingredient, while others replace intact milk protein with hydrolyzed protein to lessen the burden on an infant's digestion system.
Additionally, some formula fed newborn infants have a much lower fat absorption rate than the breast fed infants. This discrepancy in fat absorption rate decreases as infants become more mature. Presumably, newborn infants are deficient in lipase, and thus, they do not digest and absorb fat as well as breast fed infants who receive lipase in the mother's milk.
A preterm infant's digestion system is less developed than that of a term infant, yet they need more nutrients calories than term infants to foster growth and development. Medium chain triglycerides MCT oil are easy to digest and absorb, and have been included in preterm formulas to improve formula fat, protein and calcium absorption.
The medium chain fatty acids included in the medium chain triglycerides, however, are not used to re-synthesize triglycerides to form chylomicrons after the MCT oil is digested and absorbed.
As many lipid soluble nutrients, such as carotenoids and vitamins A, D, E, and K, are believed to be packaged into chylomicrons prior to entering systemic circulation, the benefit provided by MCT oil on lipid soluble nutrient absorption, which is also important for growth and development, may be more limited.
Although attempts have been made in the past to address the GI issues and others set forth above, it would be desirable to provide infant and pediatric formulas that can provide nutritional benefits similar to breast milk, and also provide good tolerance, digestion and absorption of water-insoluble hydrophobic nutrients as well as a reduction in the incidence of conditions such as necrotizing enterocolitis, colic, and short bowel syndrome.
Additionally, it would be beneficial if these formulas could be stabilizer free, and specifically carrageenan free. In some embodiments, the fatty acid component may be in fatty acid form or provided as the calcium or magnesium salts of the fatty acid, thus providing the additional benefit of additional nutrients.
One embodiment is a method of reducing the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in an infant, toddler, or child. Another embodiment is a method of reducing the incidence of colic in an infant, toddler, or child. Another embodiment is a method of reducing the incidence of short bowel syndrome in an infant, toddler, or child.
Specifically, the absorption of predigested fat in the proximal part of small intestine stimulates CCK secretion, which promotes pancreatic alpha cell maturation and the secretion of digestive enzymes.
Surprisingly, the use of predigested fat and the subsequent secretion of CCK and GLP-1 retards GI transit and stimulates pancreatic enzyme secretion to allow more complete nutrient digestion and absorption. The reduction in the amount of nutrients entering the infant's colon results in reduced colonic fermentation, which is part of the cause for gas and loose stool problems.
Further, it has been discovered that the unsaturated fatty acid component of the predigested fat can react with calcium or magnesium sources and the resultant formed salts are surprisingly bioavailable. Along with providing a good source of calcium or magnesium, these calcium or magnesium salts are also surprisingly bland, in contrast with fatty acids which are generally bitter and impart a strong throat burning sensation.
Additionally, it has been discovered that the calcium or magnesium fatty acid salts surprisingly act to stabilize nutritional emulsions, as they do not form a hard to disperse settlement in the emulsion like many insoluble calcium salts are prone to do.
As such, in many embodiments, the inclusion of calcium or magnesium fatty acid salts as part of the predigested fat may eliminate the need for stabilizers, such as carrageenan. In many embodiments, the products include fatty acid-containing monoglycerides and a fatty acid component such that the predigested fat system includes two components.
By reducing the burden on the infant, toddler, or child's digestive system, a number of benefits are realized while providing a stable, bioavailable product. These and other features of the nutritional products, as well as some of the many optional variations and additions, are described in detail hereafter.
These terms also include synthetic lipid materials so long as such synthetic materials are suitable for oral administration to humans. The solids may be powders that may be reconstituted to form a nutritional liquid, all of which comprise one or more of fat, protein and carbohydrate and are suitable for oral consumption by a human.
Numerical ranges as used herein are intended to include every number and subset of numbers within that range, whether specifically disclosed or not. Further, these numerical ranges should be construed as providing support for a claim directed to any number or subset of numbers in that range.
For example, a disclosure of from 1 to 10 should be construed as supporting a range of from 2 to 8, from 3 to 7, from 5 to 6, from 1 to 9, from 3. All references to singular characteristics or limitations of the present disclosure shall include the corresponding plural characteristic or limitation, and vice versa, unless otherwise specified or clearly implied to the contrary by the context in which the reference is made.
All combinations of method or process steps as used herein can be performed in any order, unless otherwise specified or clearly implied to the contrary by the context in which the referenced combination is made.
The various embodiments of the nutritional products of the present disclosure may also be substantially free of any optional or selected ingredient or feature described herein, provided that the remaining nutritional product still contains all of the required ingredients or features as described herein.View all articles on this page Previous article Next article.
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