Boys also voice more disengagement with school, account for most suspensions, drop out of school, and commit suicide at significantly greater rates. Minority boys are particularly at risk. The results of this study arise from four weeks of data collection in an inner city school, gradesin Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Most of the studentsare of African, Caribbean, and South Asian immigrant backgrounds, where English is not the primary language at home, and whose families live below the poverty line.
Established guidelines for civil discourse help structure and neutralize students' interactions during discussions about controversial topics.
The following guidelines are offered: Everyone should participate and offer ideas. Seek to understand before being understood. Separate yourself from your ideas.
Challenge ideas, but respect each other's views. Complex Instruction Complex instruction is a teaching method in which students work together in small groups to enhance their learning experience and to ensure full participation by every member of the group.
Each student in the group is assigned one of the following roles: A group facilitator who keeps the group on task A harmonizer who ensures participation and civility A materials manager who gathers materials needed for the group product A reporter who explains the group process during the presentation A resource manager who gathers any additional resources or content materials needed Dilemmas Problem-based learning uses dilemmas and scenarios, either real or fictional.
Used to stimulate interest, highlight conflicts, and feature abstract ideas in a more concrete setting, these devices pose a problem, such as ethnic strife, and encourage students to construct a course of action.
Students learn to think critically as they question their own assumptions, their classmates' assertions, and the references they consult. The actions they propose are based on facts, evidence, and the weighing of alternatives and consequences.
Essential Questions Essential questions are an instructional strategy teachers use to engage students and encourage in-depth study. Essential questions are often used to make connections between units of study and can lead to the integration of disciplines.
They sometimes are linked to other essential questions, and can also help focus assessment efforts. Essential Enhancing teaching and learning within music have the following characteristics: They are broad in nature.
They are central to the content of the unit or subject. They have no single correct or obvious answer. They invite higher-order thinking, including analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating.
They provoke student interest and allow students to draw from experience. Graphic Organizers Graphic organizers give students a concrete, hands-on activity in which to identify and compare otherwise abstract concepts.
A graphic organizer is a visual representation of information that shows at a glance how key concepts are related. Graphic organizers illustrate the chronological order of events over time timelinescompare and contrast Venn diagramsor serve as useful tools for brainstorming concept maps.
Recording information in a graphic organizer helps students focus on important points and clarify relationships. It also helps students retain what they learn. Rather, they are a way to get students to identify competing claims, consider the validity of different points of view, and practice the fine art of conflict resolution.
Integrated Curriculum An integrated curriculum can include elements of science, art, and English language arts. An integrated curriculum is more reflective of the real world, in which subjects are not always defined and categorized by separate disciplines.
Integrating subjects in the classroom allows students to make natural connections between content areas without being limited by artificial boundaries. In doing so, students construct their own meaning and develop skills they will need in the workplace.
An integrated curriculum may involve one or all of the following: Examining a topic from different points of view disciplines Placing greater emphasis on projects Using a variety of sources and materials in addition to the class textbook Encouraging students to recognize the relationships among and between concepts Using thematic units as organizing principles Flexible schedules Flexible student groupings When teachers develop integrated curriculum units, they often begin with a list of major concepts and processes they expect to teach.
They then endeavor to make learning meaningful by asking students a series of essential guiding questions that connect content across curricula.
These questions, usually two to five per topic, reflect the individual teacher's learning outcomes and conceptual priorities. Alternatively, teachers may begin by presenting students with a specific topic e.
Upon deconstructing that topic with the teacher, students will likely discover its component parts are derived from separate disciplines e.
Teachers can point out the cross-curricular connections and use the integrated curriculum as a jumping-off point for further discussions about how topics and subjects are related. Using content and skills from a variety of subjects to enhance your curriculum not only encourages students to explore a topic from different angles; it helps reinforce what they have already learned.
Learning by Doing Young children learn best when they have direct, hands-on experiences and when they can relate what they learn to what they already know.
Mock Trial In the course of preparing and conducting a mock trial, students study the facts of the case, prepare opening statements, present evidence, cite relevant laws and information, examine and cross-examine witnesses, conduct redirect examination, present closing arguments, arrive at a verdict, and state the reasoning behind the decision.
Students are asked to summarize the facts, reflect on their roles, relate the experience to other course content and broader issues, and compare the reenactment to the real trial. When presenting information, teachers can organize their presentations into a logical sequence, ask a variety of types of questions, use rich examples such as metaphors and analogies that link to the lives of students, and respond to students' questions and comments.
Examples can help students link new learning with what they already know. Teachers can recall personal experiences or use analogies, metaphors, and similes to help students create vivid pictures of what they are learning, clarify complex topics, or think about content in unique and memorable ways.learned," and "the student's learning style is related to the teacher's teaching style," and "directed learning is more effective than undirected learning." The methods and tools used most by teachers included demonstrations, discussions.
This project is reflective of Hutchings and Cambridge’s () definition of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL): “ problem posing about an issue of teaching or learning, study of the problem through methods appropriate to disciplinary epistemologies, applications of results to practice, communication of results, self-reflection.
This course on instructional design provides an overview of theoretical approaches to learning that can be used to analyze learning environments, of learning goals for creation and sequencing of learning activities, and of how resources can be deployed in support effective learning.
Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics: and how they can be applied within online learning systems to support education-related decision making.
learning analytics, and what factors have enabled. The Teaching-Learning Academy (TLA) is a dialogue forum for the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) at Western Washington University. Engaged in studying the intersections between teaching and learning, TLA members include students, faculty, and staff from across the University, as well as several alumni and community members.
For collaborative learning to be effective, the instructor must view teaching as a process of developing and enhancing students' ability to learn.
The instructor's role is not to transmit information, but to serve as a facilitator for learning.