Concepts of equilibrium

Subgame perfect equilibrium A generalization of backward induction is subgame perfection. Backward induction assumes that all future play will be rational.

Concepts of equilibrium

Concentation of reactants is at their maximum value. The concentration of reactants decreases with time. The concentration of products increases with time. A little after 4 hours: The concentration of reactants remains steady at 0.

The concentration of products remains steady at 0. Equilibrium is reached a little after 4 hours. So at equilibrium the concentration of reactants remains constant and the concentration of products remains constant.

Equilibrium has been reached when: Play the game now!

Identifying Equilibrium in Chemical Reactions

Affect of a Catalyst Because some chemical reactions occur slowly, industrial processes often use a catalyst to speed up the reaction.

A catalyst speeds up the rate of both the forward and reverse reactions, that is, Rate of forward reaction increases. That is, the rate at which reactants disappear increases. Rate of reverse reaction increases. That is, the rate at which products appear increases.

The graph below shows how the concentration of reactants and products in the SAME reaction at the same temperature and pressure changes over time in two different situations: For the catalysed reaction: A catalyst does NOT affect the equilibrium position.

Chemical Equilibrium Concepts Chemistry Tutorial

At equilibrium the concentrations of reactants and products for the catalysed reaction are the same as for the uncatalysed reaction. A catalyst ONLY changes the time taken for the reaction to reach equilibrium. Do you understand this? Take the test now! Affect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium Some chemical reactions occur slowly at room temperature, but by heating the reaction mixture we can speed up the rate of the reaction.

Concepts Of Equilibrium | TutorsOnNet

Increasing the temperature of a reaction mixture speeds up the rate of both the forward and reverse reactions. If temperature is increased: Rate of forward reaction increases. However, the final equilibrium position, that is, the concentration of reactants and of products once equilibrium is reached, is determined by whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic see Le Chatelier's Principle.

In an exothermic reaction, heat is a product. The intial rate of disappearance of reactants is greater at higher temperatures. The equilibrium concentration of reactants will be higher at higher temperature. The equilibrium concentration of products will be lower at higher temperature.

Increasing the temperature of an exothermic reaction favours the reverse reaction, that is, increasing temperature favours the formation of reactants.The concept of equilibrium, though analytical in nature, is quite simple in practice.

It can be defined as a point of equality or agreement between buyers and sellers. Since both demand and supply quantities are shown in the scheduled forms these indicate mutual willingness of consumers and producers to purchase or sell respectively, varying quantities at varying prices.

At equilibrium, the forward and reverse reactions of a system proceed at equal rates. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process consisting of forward and reverse reactions that proceed at equal The Concept of Equilibrium - Chemistry LibreTexts.

Chemical Equilibrium The Concept of Equilibrium Chemical equilibrium occurs when a reaction and its reverse reaction proceed at the same rate. • As a system approaches equilibrium, both the forward and reverse reactions are occurring.

• At equilibrium, the forward and reverse reactions are proceeding at the same rate. General equilibrium analysis is a widespread study of a number of economic variables, their interconnections and inter-reliance for sympathetic operations of the economic structure as a whole.

In economics, economic equilibrium is a state where economic forces such as supply and demand are balanced and in the absence of external influences the (equilibrium) values .

Concepts of equilibrium

The concept of chemical equilibrium was developed after Berthollet () found that some chemical reactions are reversible. For any reaction mixture to exist at equilibrium, the rates of the forward and backward (reverse) reactions are equal.

Economic Equilibrium