Overview[ edit ] Political scientists study matters concerning the allocation and transfer of power in decision makingthe roles and systems of governance including governments and international organizationspolitical behaviour and public policies.
United States[ edit ] Alfred Thayer Mahan and sea power[ edit ] Alfred Thayer Mahan —a frequent commentator on world naval strategic and diplomatic affairs, believed that national greatness was inextricably associated with the sea—and particularly with its commercial use in peace and its control in war.
He proposed six conditions required for a nation to have sea power: Advantageous geographical position; Serviceable coastlines, abundant natural resources, and favorable climate; Extent of territory Population large enough to defend its territory; Society with an aptitude for the sea and commercial enterprise; and Government with the influence and inclination to dominate the sea.
Mahan regarded those countries, located between Britain and Russia, as if between "Scylla and Charybdis". Of the two monsters — Britain and Russia — it was the latter that Mahan considered more threatening to the fate of Central Asia.
Therefore, he found it necessary for the Anglo-Saxon "sea power" to resist Russia. The "fatal" relationship of Russia, Japan, and Germany "has now assumed through the urgency of natural forces a coalition directed against the survival of Saxon supremacy. He thought the Anglo-Saxons faced certain disaster from their militant opponents.
He later revised it to mark Northern Eurasia as a pivot while keeping area marked above as Heartland. He saw navy as a basis of Colombian era empire roughly from to the 19th centuryand predicted the 20th century to be domain of land power. Not only was the Periphery noticeably smaller than the World Island, it necessarily required much sea transport to function at the technological level of the World Island—which contained sufficient natural resources for a developed economy.
Mackinder posited that the industrial centers of the Periphery were necessarily located in widely separated locations. The World Island could send its navy to destroy each one of them in turn, and could locate its own industries in a region further inland than the Periphery so they would have a longer struggle reaching them, and would face a well-stocked industrial bastion.
Mackinder called this region the Heartland. It essentially comprised Central and Eastern Europe: UkraineWestern Russiaand Mitteleuropa. Who rules Central and Eastern Europe commands the Heartland.
Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island. Who rules the World-Island commands the World. Spykman is both a follower and critic of geostrategists Alfred Mahanand Halford Mackinder. He extends this to include the unity of the air.
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Spykman suggested this required that attempts by Heartland nations particularly Russia to conquer ports in the Rimland must be prevented. Who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world. Following Mackinder he suggested an alliance with the Soviet Union and, advancing a step beyond Mackinder, added Japan to his design of the Eurasian Bloc.
Both continued their influence on geopolitics after the end of the Cold War,  writing books on the subject in the s— Diplomacy Kissinger and The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives. Kissinger argued against the approach that with the dissolution of the USSR hostile intentions had disappeared and traditional foreign policy considerations no longer applied.
During the Cold War, Kissinger argues, both sides of the Atlantic recognized that, "unless America is organically involved in Europe, it would be obliged to involve itself later under circumstances far less favorable to both sides of the Atlantic.
That is even more true today. Germany has become so strong that existing European institutions cannot by themselves strike a balance between Germany and its European partners. Nor can Europe, even with Germany, manage by itself […] Russia. They would raise fears of condominium.
Cold War or no Cold War.A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah The sample news and analysis articles that were previously hosted on these pages have been discontinued.
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If you would like information about specific IHS defence and security solutions please use the following links. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics which is commonly thought of as determining of the distribution of power and resources. Political scientists "see themselves engaged in revealing the relationships. New Criticism. A literary movement that started in the late s and s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.g., with the biography or psychology of the author or the work's relationship to literary history.
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